Modification entails altering the content taught, whether that means omitting or adding to the curriculum or changing the standards for assessment and evaluation based on a student’s needs and limitations. All Rights Reserved. Further, McCoy and Prehm (1987) suggest that teachers display charts or graphs that visually represent the students' progress toward memorization of the basic facts. Small-group instruction, on the other hand, is beneficial for students by allowing for personal attention from the … Varying the size of the group for instruction is another type of modification that can be used to create an effective environment for students with math disabilities. Providing adaptations is often very effective for helping students with mathematics disabilities successfully use facts to solve computational problems. For example, if the student has developed the ability to replicate the steps in a long division problem but has difficulty remembering the correct multiplication facts, the teacher should reward the appropriate steps and provide a calculator or multiplication chart to increase the student's ability to obtain the solution to the problem. Adaptations and modifications come in many forms. Other modeling examples provided by Salend (1994) include the use of charts that provide definitions, correct examples, and step-by-step instructions for each computational process. This section examines effective instructional techniques that the general educator can incorporate into the classroom for all learners, and especially for students with math disabilities. Supporting kids with special needs works best when both regular education and special education staff work together. NY: Merrill. Add 3 + 4 and record 7, no tens to carry. During the guided and independent practice periods, teachers should ensure that students are allowed opportunities to manipulate concrete objects to aid in their conceptual understanding of the mathematical process, identify the overall process involved in the lesson (i.e., have students talk about "addition is combining sets" when practicing addition problems rather than silent practice with numerals on a worksheet), and write down numerical symbols or mathematical phrases such as addition or subtraction signs. Subtraction for students with mathematics disabilities is made easier through the use of Hutchings' low-stress subtraction method (McCoy & Prehm, 1987) (see Figure 4) where all renaming is done first. Here are some examples of modifications. Salend (1994) recommended that new math concepts be introduced through everyday situations as opposed to worksheets. Adaptations and modifications of reinforcement styles or acknowledgment of student progress begin with teachers being aware of different reinforcement patterns. Add 8 +3 and record 11, put the "1" above the tens. Changing the instructional delivery system by using peer tutors (see Miller et al. Finally, modeling is another effective strategy for helping students solve computational problems. According to Merger, the problem-solving process involves 10 steps, which can be expanded into learning strategies to enable students with math disabilities to be more effective in solving word problem. Math for ELL Students. Rewrite the number in the hundreds place. Functional skills like weighing, measuring, use of money and arranging in numerical order are more important than division or algebra. Move gradually to increasing the number of problems (not more than 20 problems) and decreasing the amount of time to complete the assignment. The objects provide more engagement, which helps students stay more connected to the assignment. Making number figures out of play dough, and playing with foam or plastic number shapes are very effective activities. Beyond the "traditional" mathematical reinforcement style, which concentrates on obtaining the "right answer," students with mathematics disabilities may benefit from alternative reinforcement patterns that provide positive recognition for completing the correct steps in a problem regardless of the outcome (McCoy & Prehm, 1987). Write the number sentence (equation) and solve it. This is why learning the different number figures through touch can be very effective. Let the child provide oral responses instead of written where appropriate to demonstrate an understanding of the concept. Use of manipulatives is encouraged to provide realistic and obvious illustrations of the underlying mathematical concepts being introduced. Just be willing to be reflective and flexible. Understanding how to use a calculator and practicing its use in real-life situations will help independent living. I have some students who are able to complete them on their own and others who need my assistance. Educators classify curriculum modification as a type of educational strategy. Arrays can be used in combination with partial products to modify the multiplication process, thereby enabling students with math disabilities to gain further insight into the multiplication process. Assessments - While students with special needs may become proficient readers and writers, they should not be limited to this to show what they know.Posters, models, performances, and drawings can show what they have learned in a way that reflects their personal strengths. These resources detail easy modifications to incorporate in your curriculum for students with special needs. They encourage teachers to think about how to alter instruction while maintaining the primary purpose of mathematics instruction: Competence in manipulating numbers in the real world. To this end, teachers should be aware of the necessity for adapting and modifying the environment to facilitate appropriate, engaging instruction for these students. For newer teachers, learning that you need to modify work for kids of various levels can be a bit overwhelming. Add 2 + 6 and record 8, no tens to carry. | Minneapolis, MN 55437 (952) 838-9000 | Fax: (952) 838-0199 | Toll free in MN: (800) 537-2237 PACER@PACER.org | PACER.org ©2013, 2001 PACER Center, Inc. | ACTion Sheet: PHP-c49 PACER CENTER ACTION INFORMATION SHEETS School … Problem-solving can be adapted and modified for students with mathematics disabilities in several different ways (see Kelly & Carnine in this series for additional word problem-solving instructional strategies). Further, everyday examples involve students personally in the instruction and encourage them to learn mathematics for use in their lives. The plan may also include alternative programming and transition plans. Rarely are there specific lesson plans for special education. : A written plan for learning, developed for students with special needs, who may or may not be formally identified as exceptional. Figure 3. (1994). I will be specializing in math as opposed to English during the 2018-2019 school year. Therefore, more math resources will be added as I create resources for my own students. The 10 steps are: Hammill and Bartel (in Polloway & Patton, 1993) offer many suggestions for modifying mathematics instruction for students with LD. Increase the amount of time students have time to complete the assignment. Using these ideas and thoughts on math interventions for special ed, you will now be able to stock up your classroom with daily use items for math help, to plan functional activities for both young and older students and make math real and practical for all children with special needs. It’s okay. Large-group instruction, according to McCoy and Prehm (1987), may be useful for brainstorming and problem-solving activities. If you are trying to modify for students who need modifications, you may feel like you are failing them from time to time. Math should be practiced throughout the day, and games and art activities can be modified to teach various math skills. Limit the need for showing work: Require students to “show work” on only a few problems. Adapting instruction for mainstreamed and at risk student (2nd ed.). Effective mainstreaming. special needs students. Knowledge of the student's level of general readiness allows the teacher to determine how adaptations and modifications must be enacted to allow for the student to progress. Once the student has made a Yes/No decision, the student [Self-Test: Could My Child Have Dsycalculia?] Polloway and Patton (1993) note that students with math disabilities improve their problem-solving skills through teacher-directed activities that include (a) having students read or listen to the problem carefully; (b) engaging students in focusing on relevant information and/or significant words needed to obtain the correct answer while discarding the irrelevant by writing a few words about the answer needed (e.g., number of apples), by identifying aloud or circling the significant words in the problem, and by highlighting the relevant numbers; (c) involving students in verbalizing a solution for the problem using a diagram or sketch when appropriate; (d) developing strategies for working through the story problem by writing an appropriate mathematical sentence; and (e) performing the necessary calculations, evaluating the answer for reasonableness, and writing the answer in appropriate terms. Cut the worksheet in halves or fourths requiring students to complete one section at a time. Follow a standard format for developing worksheets. Learn more. Some examples are the abacus, a talking or large-button calculator or a math window tool. Showing work on math When it comes to tests, there are other ways to show mastery than a multiple choice test. Two methods for adapting instruction to facilitate recall of basic facts for students with math disabilities include (a) using games for continued practice, and (b) sequencing basic facts memorization to make the task easier. 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Teachers of mathematics will find that simple changes to the presentation of mathematical concepts enable students to gain a clearer understanding of the process rather than a merely mechanically correct response. Provide a 'chillax' area, a quiet location to enable the student to 'chill out or relax'. Consider what skills a child may need while living independently, and also while working, and make them a part of your teaching goals for the child. Additionally, time must be provided for students to engage in problem-solving and other math "thinking" activities beyond the simple practice of computation, even before students have shown mastery of the computational skills. Even if they know facts by memory, they can choke on a timed test. The key to knowing who needs an accommodation at any given time is through the use of formative assessments . Plan a procedural strategy (i.e., identify the specific steps to follow). Examine the math relationships in the problem. Determine the math knowledge needed to solve the problem. This might be the case for a student with a math disability who takes a considerably long time to solve each problem and gets extremely frustrated during homework. Children with special needs often struggle with the concept of numbers and may need a lot of practice in this area before they can be taught higher skills.